Cognitive Enhancements Solutions - Learning Programs for Children

PREP Sample Activity

The PREP program improves information-processing strategies in this activity by asking students to improve their successive processing using scanning, rehearsal, verbalization, and short-term sequential memory.  In session one, students are asked to join shapes by drawing a line in the appropriate place according to the rules the facilitator gives them.  In the first part of the activity, students are given one step instructions.  After completing the assignment individually, students work with the group to share strategies they use to remember the rules and complete the activities.  The facilitator also may make suggestions and demonstrate tactics for improvement in the next stages. In session two, facilitators give two consecutive instructions at the same time and have students complete the activity individually, followed by a group discussion about areas for improvement and successful strategies. 

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SESSION 1 Set A - Items 1-4 [One Instruction]

PROMPTING STAGE 1

After giving the instructions to the students, ask them to repeat them to make sure they understand the task. Allow the students to complete the task on their own with very minimal help. This encourages students to develop their own strategies through experience.

  • Direct students to the Joining Shapes- Global Worksheet in their Activity Book and say: Now follow my instructions and connect the shapes to make a pattern. Remember to follow the rules.
  • The Facilitator says “TRIANGLE- SQUARE”. When the students have finished the connection, the facilitator gives the next instruction: “SQUARE-TRIANGLE.” The instructions are given one-by-one until the item is completed. The students may not start working until each individual instruction has been said.
  • Shape names have been abbreviated to T= Triangle; S=Square; H=Hexagon on the Answer Keys.
  • If students follow all the instructions correctly, reinforce their responses. Then, ask students what strategies they used to complete the task.
  • If students finish all connections correctly then complete the remaining items.
  • If students are not able to finish all the connections correctly, go to Prompting Stage 2.

PROMPTING STAGE 2

If the students find the task difficult in Prompting Stage I because they could not remember the instructions, suggest they find a way to help them remember like repeating the instructions to themselves. If an incorrect connection is made, review the rules with the students and guide them to discover the rules that they did not follow.

  • Stop students and say: That’s close but start back here (point to the last response) and listen carefully to what I said (repeat the instruction). Allow students to correct their response.
  • If students are not able to make the connection, say: Do you remember the rules? Are you following the rules here? Go through the rules with students and let them correct their response.
  • If students finish all connections correctly, then complete the remaining items.
  • If students are not able to complete the item, go to Prompting Stage 3.

PROMPTING STAGE 3

If the students have not been able to finish the task after Prompting Stage 2, using peer interaction can be effective and students can gain from cooperative learning. Ensure students learn the strategies on their own, they cannot be simply provided by the facilitator.

  • Show students the correct response. Ask the students if they can try to explain some of the strategies they used. Talk about the strategies (for example, scanning ahead before proceeding, and rehearsing the rules).
  • If students finish all connections correctly, then complete the remaining items.

SESSION 2 Set A - Items 5-8 [Two Instructions]

  • The facilitator gives two consecutive instructions at the same time, for example, by saying to the students: “TRlANGLE-­­SQUARE­--SQUARE-SQUARE”. When the students are finished with the connection, the facilitator gives the next instruction. Again, the students may not start working until sets of instructions have been said.
  • If a student has difficulty completing this level of the task use Prompting Stage 1, 2 or 3 described above as needed.

TASK SUMMARY

Review the activity and discuss what strategies worked well. Ask if they liked the task. Talk about which parts were easier for the students and which were more difficult. Finally ask how they could improve the strategies.